Color Field

Barnett Newman /   Baruch Newman

United States 1905 - 1970

Color Field, Abstract Expressionism, Painting

Barnett Newman
Baruch Newman
United States
June 21, 2016
Music, Gestalt, .

Considering the artist as the creator of the world, Barnett Newman thought that the humans have the primal instinct to create that is reflected in both ancient and modern art. Although sharing the interest in myth and primitive unconscious with Abstract Expressionists, his enormous colored canvases with trademark “zips” moved him away from the gestural abstraction of his contemporaries. In the beginning, his work did not provoke any particular reaction, but during the time, Newman became a base for Minimalism, and second generation of Colored Field painters. Feeling that the World War II impoverished the art, he attended to bring it back to the beginning by rejecting any established approaches a mode of image-making.

Barnett Newman - Onement III, 1949, Image via theguardiancom york
Barnett Newman – Onement III, 1949, Image via

Education and Artistic Beginnings

Newman was born in 1905 in New York, as the son of the Jewish immigrants from Poland. During the high school, he started to take drawing lessons at the Art Students League where he met Adolph Gottlieb, who had introduced him to prominent artists and gallery owners. Newman gained his education in philosophy at City College of New York and after that decided to help his father in his clothing manufacturing business until it failed caused by the 1929 stock market crash. After the position of substitute art teacher, a creation of the short-lived magazine about worker’s rights, and marriage with the teacher Annalee Greenhouse, he decided to give up painting and study ornithology and Pre-Columbian art, occasionally organizing exhibitions and writing catalogs and art reviews. He cooperated with the gallery owner Betty Parsons who had represented Mark Rothko, Clyfford Still and Jackson Pollock, Newman’s close friends. By 1944, after the four years, he had returned to painting, now inspired by Surrealism that made him destroy all his previous work because of its figurativeness. He maintained that practice throughout the entire career, exterminating every piece that failed to please him.

At the beginning, Newman’s art was inspired by Surrealism

Barnett Newman - Vir Heroicus Sublimis, 1950, Image via anjasthemeofthe weekblogspotcom american modern museum new york
Barnett Newman – Vir Heroicus Sublimis, 1950, Image via anjasthemeofthe

Exploring the Space Beyond the Form of Physical Presence

A decisive moment in Newman’s career occurred in 1948 when he invented a pictorial element called a “zip”. His first painting of that kind Onement I introduced this vertical stripe of color that divided the painted surface and became a trademark of his work. The zips represented the place where the Newman invites the viewer to enter and feel the totality of separateness and individuality of their own, but also of the entire world, society or universe. It was an embodiment of physical body, as opposite to the color field that contains the raw energy of life. Constantly repeating this line, he contemplated his life within the universe and at the same time reviled the passage to the space beyond the form of the physical presence into the place of his color field. At the beginning, the color field was mottled, but during the time, the colors became pure and flat. The zips had a role to define the spatial structure, dividing and uniting the composition. Purely abstract, his paintings remained untitled, but some of them later got the names addressed on Jewish themes, like Adam and Eve, Uriel or Abraham, which was beside biblical patriarch, also the name of his father who had died two years before the painting was made. His series of black and white works, The Stations of the Cross (1958-66), helped to recover from a heart attack and its subtitle Lema sabachthani or Why have you forsaken me referred to the Jesus’ last words on the cross and was also interpreted as a memorial to the victims of the holocaust, as a part of artist’s intention to evoke the victims of humanity throughout history. Distinctive series is recognizable for its monochrome palette of black and white applied on the raw canvases, with the accent on the use of the zip. Waiting for the spontaneous urge, it took him eight years to finish the series. These paintings referred to something beyond their formal extremes, both physical and metaphysical. Painting about tragedy, reduced palette was the only way to truly express the suffering, but he succeeded to achieve the quality of color without the use of it. As Newman himself said, a painter should try to paint the impossible.

Newman had an intention to evoke the victims of humanity throughout history

Barnett Newman - First Station, 1958, Image via redflagorg american new york modern museum
Barnett Newman – The Stations of the Cross, 1958, Image via redflagorg

The Constant Struggle for the Recognition

A negative response to his new works exhibited at Betty Parsons Gallery and even violent reaction of the audience, as splashing and defacing the paintings, which continued on the next few shows, resulted in the Newman’s withdrawal from the gallery scene. He devoted himself to the writing and his pieces were not seen anywhere between 1951 and 1955. In 1957 he had a heart attack and during the early 60’s, the critics started changing their opinion. In 1959 Clemet Greenberg organized his solo show at French & Company and from that occasion, Newman was considered as an important representative of the Abstract Expressionism. Expanding his work into sculpture and lithographs, his pieces became a part of few important museum exhibitions that consolidate his position within the movement. Still, many people could not understand his art and misinterpretations followed him during his whole career. He was so resigned, that he sometimes himself rejected the offers to exhibit with his contemporaries. Even after the big solo show at Guggenheim in 1966 where his Stations of the Cross were displayed, the situation was not much improved. That, fortunately, did not stop him from creating some of his most important works in the next couple years, including the series Who’s Afraid of Red, Yellow and Blue (1966-68) and monumental sculpture Broken Obelisk (1963-69).

Barnett Newman expanded his work into sculpture and lithographs

Barnett Newman - Broken Obelisk, Rothko Chapel, 1963-69, Image via enwikipediaorg new york american museum search 1968 new york
Barnett Newman – Broken Obelisk, Rothko Chapel, 1963-69, Image via

The Broken Obelisk, Who’s Afraid of Red Yellow and Blue and Cantos

Among his six sculptures, the Broken Obelisk also known as Black Needle is the most famous and the largest. Made of steel, it consists of two parts – converted obelisk above the pyramid, connected at a surface of only two and quarter inches. There are 4 multiples in total. One of them was placed in front of the Rothko’s Chapel in Huston in 1970, in the middle if the reflecting pool. The sculpture embodies Newman’s meditation on ancient Egypt, changing the Western association with death and instead of it producing the eternal image of transcendence.

Two paintings from a four-part series Who’s Afraid of Red, Yellow and Blue whose name was a reference to the play by Edward Albee Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? have been the subject of vandalistic attacks in museums, although Newman did not have any preconceived idea of its subject or final meaning. With the aim to create something different from his previous pieces, he painted the canvas in red and realized that it works only with yellow and blue, making the confrontation with the work of Piet Mondrian.

His series of lithographs, the 18 Cantos, the only print series in color, refers to musical analogies. “Their symphonic mass lends additional clarity to each individual canto,” the artist wrote the introduction. On these paintings he was using thinner zips, not paying attention to the paint that spanned over the margins, testing the idea of spatial boundaries.

His series Cantos refers to musical analogies

Barnett Newman - Canto X - Canto XIV, 1963–4, Image via tateorguk new york american museum
Barnett Newman – Canto X – Canto XIV, 1963–4, Image via

Newman’s Writings

Among his peers from the New York School, Newman was the most productive writer, especially at the beginning of his artistic career. In his most famous essay The Sublime is Now published in the magazine Tiger’s Eye on December 1948, Newman discussed the work of several 20th-century European artists who, according to his opinion, destroyed the old standards of beauty. Coming from the ancient Greek ideals, he investigated the ways that contemporary philosophers reconciled these ideas with the appearance of modern styles. The final and greatest success occurred between the ideas of beauty and sublime that merged into the unique whole, creating entirely new sublime ideas about the beauty. Asserting the priority of the aesthetic over the social, he claimed that humans were artists before they were hunters, and man first built an idol of mud before he made an ax. The original question “What?” was the initiator of the prime scientific quest and the domination of science over the mind of modern man has been accomplished by ignoring this question which made advancements in the arts and science no longer possible. Newman was also very interested in ideas and discussion but claimed to never approach any painting with a plan. Focusing on immediate and particular, he created by the intuition. He believed that the main issue of painting was the subject matter that in the case of abstract art, deprived of any classical standards for making art, touching the most basic human emotions. Working with pure forms, starting from the pure idea void of symbolism or allusions, the artist is a creator of an abstract thought-complex. According to him, modern art from its beginnings had been a quest to negate the classical standards of beauty. What the Impressionist started, his generation was left to complete.

Newman believed that the main issue of painting was the subject matter

Barnet Newman - Cathedra, 1951, Image via redflagorg york search 1968 new york
Barnet Newman – Cathedra, 1951, Image via

The Legacy of Barnett Newman

As a member of several artistic groups, schools and styles, Newman could be classified as Abstract Expressionist, but his art has also been referred to Color Field movement, Formalism, and even proto-Minimalism. His wide oeuvre was comprised of paintings, drawings, prints, sculpture and one architectural model. His earliest works have not been preserved, considering that by 1944 the artist destroyed all of his art pieces. During the late 1950’s, a group of second-generation abstract expressionists began to imitate and develop Newman’s style, aiming to remove all subjective elements including brushstrokes. Without his influence, it is quite certain that Color Field Painting would have evolved in a different way. Overshadowed by famous Jackson Pollock and even Mark Rothko, he has unfairly left aside. In 1979, the Barnett Newman Foundation was grounded to promote and help understanding and importance of his work. Barnett Newman died on July 4, 1970, of a heart attack. Misinterpreted and unappreciated during his life, he is now considered as one of the crucial persons of the Abstract Expressionism. Not focusing on the non-representational meaning of shapes and colors, his approach was more philosophical, inviting the viewer to experience the painting both physically and physical.

Featured image: Barnett Newman – Artist portrait, Image via

YearsExhibition titleGallery/MuseumGroup/Solo
2016Life Itself Moderna Museet, StockholmGroup
2015Narrativas monumentales. Figuras, paisajes y rituales Museo de Arte Contemporáneo Gas Natural Fenosa (MAC)Group
2015America Is Hard to See Whitney Museum of American Art, New York City, NYGroup
2015Fuego blanco, La colección moderna del Kunstmuseum Basel Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, MadridGroup
2015Geometries On And Off The Grid: Art From 1950 To The Present The Warehouse, Dallas, TXGroup
2015Barnett Newman: The Late Work The Menil Collection, Houston, TXSolo
2014Line: Making the Mark Museum of Fine Arts Houston, Houston, TXGroup
2014The Irascibles Munson Williams Proctor Arts Institute, Utica, NYGroup
2014Experiments with Truth: Gandhi and Images of Nonviolence The Menil Collection, Houston, TXGroup
2014Formes simples Centre Pompidou, Metz, MetzGroup
2014Barnett Newman: The Late Work The Menil Collection, Houston, TXSolo
2013Ausweitung der Kampfzone. Die Sammlung. 1968to2000 Neue Nationalgalerie, BerlinGroup
2013Pollock e gli Irascibili, La scuola di New York Palazzo Reale, MilanGroup
2013Piet Mondrian, Barnett Newman, Dan Flavin Kunstmuseum Basel, BaselGroup
2013Adventures of truth, Painting and philosophy Fondation Maeght, Saint PaulGroup
2013Byzantine Things in the World The Menil Collection, Houston, TXGroup
2013Untitled Etching #1 Robert Bills Contemporary, Chicago, ILSolo
2012The Geometric Unconscious: A Century of Abstraction Sheldon Museum of Art, Lincoln, NEGroup
2012To the Museum of Modern Dreams Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, StuttgartGroup
2012Mythology and the Origins of Abstraction The Pace Gallery, 32 East 57th Street, New York City, NYGroup
2012Ulae Universal Limited Art Editions Greg Kucera Gallery, Seattle, WAGroup
2012In The Tower: Barnett Newman The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DCSolo
2011Die Kunst der Entschleunigung, Bewegung und Ruhe in der modernen Kunst Kunstmuseum Wolfsburg, WolfsburgGroup
2011Abstract Expressionist New York Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, ONGroup
2011Obras maestras de la pintura en la Colección del IVAM. Pasado, presente y futuro Institut Valencià d'Art Modern, ValenciaGroup
2011Abstract Now and Then Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive BAM PFA, Berkeley, CAGroup
2011Barnett Newman Craig F. Starr Gallery, New York City, NYSolo
2010Das Geistige in der Kunst, Vom Blauen Reiter zum Abstrakten Expressionismus Museum Wiesbaden, WiesbadenGroup
2010Abstract Expressionist New York Museum of Modern Art, New York City, NYGroup
2010Side by Side: Oberlin's Masterworks at the Phillips The Phillips Collection, Washington, DCGroup
2010Vertical Thoughts: Morton Feldman and the Visual Arts Irish Museum of Modern Art, IMMA,DublinGroup
2010Collecting Biennials Whitney Museum of American Art, New York City, NYGroup
2010Barnett Newman: Dialogue between Man and Work Kawamura Memorial Museum of Art,Sakura, ChibaSolo
2009Illustre Gäste, Amerikanische Kunst 1950 bis 1970 aus der Sammlung des Museum Folkwang im Josef Albers Museum Josef Albers Museum, BottropGroup
2009MOCA´s First Thirty Years MOCA Grand Avenue, Los Angeles, CAGroup
2009Choices VI Galerie Rigassi, BernGroup
2009Warhol Wool Newman, Painting Real Kunsthaus Graz, GrazGroup
2009Bilderträume. Die Sammlung Ulla und Heiner Pietzsch Neue Nationalgalerie, BerlinGroup
2009Visiones de Confin Institut Valencià d'Art Modern, ValenciaGroup
2009Playing This Litho Instrument: The Prints of Barnett Newman Craig F. Starr Gallery, New York City, NYSolo
2008Modernism and the Wichner Collection Long Beach Museum of Art, Long Beach, CAGroup
2008Action Abstraction Saint Louis Art Museum, Saint Louis, MOGroup
20081968: Art and Politics in Chicago DePaul Art Museum, Chicago, ILSolo
2008Barnett Newman Drawings 1944 to 1946 Craig F. Starr Gallery, New York City, NYSolo
2007Die aufregende Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts Neue Nationalgalerie, BerlinGroup
2007La Abstraction del Paisaje Fundación Juan March, MadridGroup
2007Declaring Space The Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Fort Worth, TXGroup
2006Collection Highlights Kawamura Memorial Museum of Art, Sakura, ChibaGroup
2006Van Eelen Collection Kröller Müller Museum, OtterloGroup
2005Mäzene der Kunst auf Papier Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, StuttgartGroup
2005Entdecken und Besitzen Museum Moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig , ViennaGroup
2005Standing Exhibition Kamakura Gallery, KanagawaGroup
2005Barnett Newman: Drawing Declares the Space Craig F. Starr Gallery, New York City, NYSolo
2004Gegenwelten Neue Nationalgalerie, BerlinGroup
2004Beyond Geometry Experiments in Form 1940s to 70s, Miami Art Museum, Miami, FLGroup
2004Blue Kamakura Gallery, KanagawaGroup
2004Shanghai Art Museum: Encounters with Modernism Stedelijk Museum CS, AmsterdamGroup
2003Aaron Siskind and others Andrea Rosen Gallery, New York City, NYGroup
2003Berlin Moskau Moskau Berlin 1950 to 2000 Neue Nationalgalerie, BerlinGroup
2003Das Recht des Bildes Kunstmuseum Bochum, BochumGroup
2003In Pursuit of the Absolute The Menil Collection, Houston, TXGroup
2003Barnett Newman: Cantos Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, StuttgartSolo
2002Rechteckakzeptanz Galerie Schafschetzy, GrazGroup
2002La Culture Pour Vivre Centre Pompidou, Musée National d´Art Moderne, ParisGroup
2002The Physical World, An Exhibition Of Painting And Sculpture Gagosian Gallery , New York City, NYGroup
2002Claude Monet, ...bis zum digitalen Impressionismus Fondation Beyeler, RiehenGroup
2002Barnett Newman Tate Modern, LondonSolo
2002Barnett Newman Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PASolo
2001Claude Monet und die Moderne Kunsthalle der Hypo Kulturstiftung, MunichGroup
2001Letters, Signs & Symbols, Paintings, Sculpture and Works on Paper Brooke Alexander Editions, New York City, NYGroup
2001Vital forms, American Art in the anatomic age, 1940 ,to 1960 Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York City, NYGroup
2001Bilderschatz, The Best of Kunsthaus Kunsthaus Zürich, ZurichGroup
2001Minimalismos. Un signo de los tiempos Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, MadridGroup
2001Ornament und Abstraktion Fondation Beyeler, RiehenGroup
2001Barnett Newman, Cathedra Stedelijk Museum CS, AmsterdamSolo
2000Drawing is Another kind of Language Mary & Leigh Block Museum of Art, Evanston, ILGroup
2000USF Collects University of South Florida Contemporary Art Museum, Tampa, FLGroup
2000Expresionismo Abstracto Fundación Juan March, MadridGroup
2000Works on Paper Simon C Dickinson Ltd, LondonGroup
2000Barnett Newman, Notes 1968 The Chinati Foundation, Marfa, TXSolo
1999Surrealistas en el exilio y los inicios de la Escuela de Nueva York Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, MadridGroup
1999Barnett Newman - The Complete Editions, Jasper Johns References to Barnett Newman Brooke Alexander Editions, New York City, NYGroup
1999Drawn from Artists' Collections The Drawing Center, New York City, NYGroup
1999Barnett Newman, Notes 1968 The Chinati Foundation, Marfa, TXSolo
1998KölnSkulptur 1 Skulpturenpark Köln, CologneGroup
1998The New York School Museum of Modern Art, New York City, NYGroup
1998Exhibition of the century Wellington City Gallery, WellingtonGroup
1998The New York School Gagosian Gallery , New York City, NYGroup
1997Etchings of the Twentieth Century Margo Leavin Gallery, Los Angeles, CAGroup
1997Birth Of The Cool, Amerikanische Malerei Von Georgia O’Keeffe Bis Christopher Wool Deichtorhallen Hamburg, HamburgGroup
1997Barnett Newman K20 Grabbeplatz, DusseldorfSolo
1997Barnett Newman, die Druckgraphik Albertina, ViennaSolo
1996Amerikanische Druckgrafik 1960 bis 1990 Städel Museum, FrankfurtGroup
1996Moderna Museet Stockholm zu Gast in Bonn Die großen Sammlungen IV Kunst und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BonnGroup
1996Barnett Newman, die Druckgraphik Kunstmuseum Bern, BernSolo
1996Barnett Newman: Prints 1961 to 1969 Camden Arts Centre, LondonSolo
1996Barnett Newman, die Druckgraphik Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, StuttgartSolo
1994 Konzeptionelle Druckgraphik Städel Museum, FrankfurtGroup
1994Newman, Rothko, Still: Search for the Sublime L&M Arts, New York, New York City, NYGroup
1994The Sublime Is Now: The Early Works of Barnett Newman Saint Louis Art Museum, Saint Louis, MOSolo
1993In a classical vein : works from the permanent collection Whitney Museum of American Art,New York City, NYGroup
1993Works on Paper Anthony d'Offay Gallery, LondonGroup
1993Azur Fondation Cartier pour l'art contemporain, ParisGroup
1993Brice Marden, Barnett Newman, Robert Ryman Akira Ikeda, Nagoya, NagoyaGroup
1992Contemporary Art from the Marcia Simon Weisman Collection The Menil Collection, Houston, TXGroup
1991Art of the Forties MoMA, Museum of Modern Art, New York City, NYGroup
1991Barnett Newman: 18 Cantos MOCA Grand Avenue, Los Angeles, CASolo
1991Barnett Newman: 18 cantos Bündner Kunstmuseum Chur, ChurSolo
1988Zwischen Schwarz & Weiss Neuer Berliner Kunstverein, BerlinGroup
1988Un siglo de escultura moderna: La colección de Patsy y Raymond Nasher Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, MadridGroup
1988American print renaissance 1958 to 1988 Whitney Museum of American Art, Fairfield County,Stamford, CTGroup
1988Barnett Newman: 18 Cantos MOCA Grand Avenue, Los Angeles, CASolo
1987A Century of Modern Sculpture: The Patsy and Raymond Nasher Collection The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DCGroup
1987Radierungen im 20. Jahrhundert Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, StuttgartGroup
1987A Century of Modern Sculpture: The Patsy and Raymond Nasher Collection Dallas Museum of Art, Dallas, TXGroup
1987Barnett Newman. Samlade verk på papper Moderna Museet, StockholmSolo
1986Individuals : A Selected History of Contemporary Art, 1945 to 1986 MOCA Grand Avenue, Los Angeles, CAGroup
1986Barnett Newman, Das druckgraphische Werk Städtisches Museum Abteiberg,MönchengladbachSolo
1986Prints of Barnett Newman The University of Chicago, Chicago, ILSolo
1985Transformations in sculpture. four decades of American and European art Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York City, NYGroup
1985RAUM ZEIT STILLE Kölnischer Kunstverein, CologneGroup
1984Eccentric Images Margo Leavin Gallery, Los Angeles, CAGroup
1984Creation, Modern Art And Nature Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh, ScotlandGroup
1981Black and White Riko Mizuno Gallery, Los Angeles, CAGroup
1981Barnett Newman, das zeichnerische Werk Museum Ludwig, CologneSolo
1980Barnett Newman Centre Pompidou, Musée National d´Art Moderne, ParisSolo
1980Barnett Newman: the complete drawings 1944 to 1969 The Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, MDSolo
1979Abstract Expressionism: A Tribute to Harold Rosenberg The University of Chicago, Chicago, ILGroup
1979Printed Matters, Barnett Newman: 18 Cantos Gatodo Gallery, TokyoSolo
1978La Biennale di Venezia 1978. From Nature to Art, from Art to Nature La Biennale di Venezia,VeniceGroup
1978American Art at Mid Century: The Subjects of the Artist The National Gallery of Art,Washington, DCGroup
1978Barnett Newman University Art Museum, Santa Barbara, CASolo
1977Arte USA Fundación Joan Miró, BarcelonaGroup
1977Arte USA Fundación Juan March, MadridGroup
1976Acquisition Priorities: Aspects of Postwar Painting in America Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York City, NYGroup
1976The Natural Paradise: Painting in America 1800 to 1950 MoMA, Museum of Modern Art, New York City, NYGroup
1976New York in Europa Neue Nationalgalerie, BerlinGroup
1976Twentieth-century American drawing: three avant-garde generations Kunsthalle Bremen,BremenGroup
1972Universal Limited Art Editions, Collectors Items Ronald Feldman Fine Arts Inc, New York City, NYGroup
1972Scuola di New York Galleria Morone, MilanGroup
1972Barnett Newman Stedelijk Museum CS, AmsterdamSolo
1971Barnett Newman Museum of Modern Art, New York City, NYSolo
1970Dan Flavin, Untitled (to Barnett Newman) Leo Castelli Gallery, New York City, NYGroup
1970Monumental Art Cincinnati Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati, OHGroup
1970The Sidney and Harriet Janis Collection Institute of Contemporary Arts, LondonGroup
1970Prints by Nine New York Painters Cincinnati Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati, OHGroup
1970Barnett Newman Memorial Norton Simon Museum of Art, Pasadena, CASolo
1970Barnett Newman Memorial 1905 to 1970 Museum of Modern Art, New York City, NYSolo
1968documenta 4 Documenta, KasselGroup
1968Dada, Surrealism and their Heritage Museum of Modern Art, New York City, NYGroup
19671967 Annual Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting Whitney Museum of American Art,New York City, NYGroup
1965The Inner and Outer Space, An Exhibition Devoted to Universal Art Moderna Museet,StockholmGroup
1965New York School: The First Generation, Paintings of the 1940s and 1950s Los Angeles County Museum of Art Group
1964Guggenheim International Award 1964 Haus am Lützowplatz, BerlinGroup
1964American Painters as New Lithographers Museum of Modern Art, New York City, NYGroup
1964American Paintings and Sculpture 67th Annual The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, ILGroup
1963Annual exhibition 1963, Contemporary American painting Whitney Museum of American Art,New York City, NYGroup
1962Willem de Kooning & Barnett Newman Allan Stone Gallery, New York City, NYGroup
1961The Ben Heller Collection of Paintings of the School of New York The Art Institute of Chicago,Chicago, ILGroup
1959documenta 2 Documenta, KasselGroup
1959The New American Painting Tate Britain, LondonGroup
1958The New American Painting, BOZAR Palais des Beaux Arts, Paleis voor Schone Kunsten,BrusselsGroup
1958The New American Painting Stedelijk Museum CS, AmsterdamGroup
1958The New American Painting Kunsthalle Basel, Basel Group
1955Ten Years Betty Parsons Gallery, New York City, NYGroup
1951Barnett Newman Betty Parsons Gallery, New York City, NYSolo
1950Barnett Newman Betty Parsons Gallery, New York City, NYSolo
1947Abstract and Surrealist American Art: Fifty Eighth Annual Exhibition of American Paintings and Sculpture The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, ILGroup
1947The Ideographic Picture Betty Parsons Gallery, New York City, NYGroup
What is Art Critic and Collector Clement Greenberg Famous For?

Clement Greenberg is hailed as one of the greatest art critics of the 20th century. But what did he do, and write, to become so famous?

Read More
The Importance of Composition in Art

Composition in art stands for an ordering of artistic elements in a unifying way. In order to better understand it we look at its meaning, elements, and politics.

Read More
The Story of 1950s Art

Deeply rooted in post war cultural and political context , 1950s art movements massively influenced contemporary art in general.

Read More
Barnett Newman - The Color Field Painter

Barnett Newman is one of the most prolific American artists working within the realm of Color Field Painting.

Read More
Kippenberger - Big in Japan

He has become known as an artist whose creative process included sculptures and paintings, collages and posters, performances and installations… His name? Martin Kippenberger.

Read More
Christie's Semiannual Report

The auction giant Christie s reported a record with art sales jumping 12 percent to £2.69 billion ($4.47 billion, up 22 percent)

Read More
Christie’s Record-Breaking Auction

On May 13, 2014, Christie’s broke their auction record for the highest-grossing auction, a record. The evening contemporary sale held last fall brought in $691 million, but this recent auction hit the $745 million mark.

Read More