Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec - Photograph of the artist - Image via nbmaacom

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec/ Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec Monfa

France 1864 - 1901

Post-impressionism

www.toulouse-lautrec-foundation.org

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec Monfa
Male
France
1864

A master of printmaking, posters and lithograph drawing, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec was a French artist who invented and applied so many innovations to the world of art that it’s laborious work to just name them all. Gathering his creative influences from the works of the Impressionist Edgar Degas and the Japanese styles, Toulouse-Lautrec is credited for imbuing marginalized populations through his artworks. Unfortunately, Henri was also quite a frail man, suffering numerous chronical ailments throughout his life, illnesses that ultimately led to his demise and stopped him from impacting the history of art even further than he did.

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Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec – At the Moulin Rouge, The Dance, 1890 – Image via artap.ru

Childhood and Art education

Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec Monfa was born into the aristocracy on November 24, 1864, in Albi, a large commune in France. His parents Adèle and Alphonse were quite wealthy, but there was a terrible rumor lingering around the household of Toulouse-Lautrec – it has been said that Adèle and Alphonse were actually first cousins and that they were descended from previous instances of family inbreeding. Since Henri and many of his relatives were suffering from various chronical infections and physical ailments, many were convinced that the rumors are quite accurate. With such fragile physical condition, little Henri fractured his femur during his early teen years, suffering a condition that had a massive impact on his height as Toulouse-Lautrec never grew over 4 1/2 feet whilst his torso was quite nonproportional with his legs. All of that resulted with a handicap – Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec’s was never able to walk without the use of a cane. Furthermore, he was forced to endure massively painful toothaches and mild facial deformities that were never fully healed. Some of the numerous experts that investigated the early life of this artist even went as far as to claim Henri suffered from pycnodysostosis, but many specialists have questioned this and that theory was never truly accepted.

It’s quite striking how all of the troubled members of Toulouse-Lautrec family found their comfort and solace in one activity – creating art. Henri personally made a choice to take up sketching from an early age prior to adolescence and the hobby slowly built up into a full painting craft as the young artist had a lot of spare time on his hands due to long periods of recuperation from health issues. Toulouse-Lautrec attended the Lycée Fontanes in Paris for a short period of time in the early 1870s and later on studied under the wings of fellow artists René Princeton and John Lewis Brown. These two painters focused most of their creative efforts towards exploring the boundaries of animal portraiture and that naturally extended down to the ideas of the pupil they shared – this heavily influenced some of Toulouse-Lautrec’s sensibilities later in his career. When Henri decided art was something he would enjoy pursuing on a professional level, the young painter sought further knowledge at the workshops of Léon Bonnat and Fernand Cormon during the years of 1882 and 1883, respectfully.

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Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec – Portrait de Suzanne Valadon – Image via wikimedia.org

Welcome to Paris!

During the year of 1884, Toulouse-Lautrec moved to the Montmartre section of Paris, an area that was well known for its bohemian lifestyle which included exciting musical performances, numerous bars and the most popular brothels. During that period, Henri was expressing his artistic tendencies by creating pieces to accompany the music shows of singer/composer Bruant, a man that was also an owner of a prestigious cabaret where Toulouse-Lautrec was able to showcase his pieces. This time was quite essential for the development of a young aspiring artist because it allowed him to see from the get-go how it is to work for a client and how difficult it can be when you are trying to promote yourself in a compatible game such as the art scene of the late 19th century. Slowly progressing and tirelessly evolving, Toulouse-Lautrec built a stellar reputation for himself by depicting regular Montmartre denizens and celebrities. He worked with some of the most valuable and important individuals Paris had to offer, with the list of his subjects being topped by such names as Yvette Guilbert, Jane Avril and Loïe Fuller. Soon enough, residents of the Montmartre boulevard were literally lining up in order to get a chance of model for Henri – to be depicted by Toulouse-Lautrec was soon a sign of prestige and a hint that you are a popular and prosperous person. Needless to say, Henri Toulouse-Lautrec loved every minute of it as this was a whole new world to explore, not to mention how radically different it was when compared to the isolated lifestyle he was used to.

Toulouse-Lautrec did not experiment that much with the material he used as much as he did with the ways of depicting same subjects in different ways. He mostly worked on canvas when he was painting ordered pieces of portraiture for his clients, but what separated him from the rest of the pack was the fact Henri did not frown upon the newly popularized medium of posters. Furthermore, Toulouse-Lautrec embraced the new method and decided to devote much artistic energy towards it, seeing the poster’s potential hidden, quite literally, in plain sight. Soon, people started to identify the process of making posters with Henri, which in return made him extremely popular and highly sought after, as well as making him the poster-boy of the entire new medium. Furthermore, Toulouse-Lautrec became famous for his unique style that was unlike anything the audience has ever seen prior to Henri’s arrival to the French capital. In an attempt to somehow locate the roots of this visual artist’s methods and style, many experts agreed that Toulouse-Lautrec found much incentive and influence inside the works of Japanese ukiyo-e woodblock printmakers which served as a limitless source of inspiration for the young artist. Henri was also heavily guided by the concepts of Edgar Degas, a fellow artist that also lived in the Montmartre section of Paris and was Toulouse-Lautrec’s close neighbor for a short period of time.

Toulouse used all the artistic and useful tools at his disposal to create depictions of Parisian night life

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Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec – At the Moulin Rouge, 1892 – Image via wikimedia.org

Toulouse-Lautrec and his Depictions of Women

Over time, Henri developed an affinity of portraying damsels over gentlemen. This has often been attributed to simple sexual urge, but it seems as Toulouse-Lautrec found females to be more aesthetically diverse and more chelanging to portray. Some of the most well-known works this artist ever authored are The Englishman at the Moulin Rouge and the paintings At the Moulin Rouge – pieces in which Henri often portrayed himself amidst the masses, enjoying the view or a tasty beverage. Another popular painting of Toulouse-Lautrec is Rousse, a genius composition of a half-bare woman sitting in a café. As opposed to many of his contemporaries, French art critics at the time have regularly pointed out that Henri Toulouse-Lautrec had an unusual focal point and that it could be found somewhere at the crossroads of humor and realistic representation. He had a masterfull skill of eschewing fantasy to accurately reflect the circumstances surrounding the people he painted, many of which became his close friends afterward. Henri is also praised for being one of the first artists to ever depict workers of the sex industry without relying solely on erotic objectification. This revolutionary concept was seen in Toulouse-Lautrec’s famed 1896 brothel series of prints, Elles, as well as in the 1897 painting Woman Before a Mirror. In this remarkable piece, Henri presents her neither as a moralizing symbol nor a romantic heroine, but rather as a flesh-and-blood woman as capable of joy or sadness as anyone else. Through that sort of depicting, Toulouse-Lautrec showed both directness and honesty that are a true indicator of his love towards women.

Lautrec made connections with the ladies of the night and became one of the first artists to depict workers of the sex industry without relying solely on erotic objectification

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec - In the Salon at the Rue des Moulins, 1894 - Image via ytimgcom biography 2016 page
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec – In the Salon at the Rue des Moulins, 1894 – Image via ytimg.com

The Irony of a Sad Clown

Although he loved presenting himself as a witty, fun man about town, the truth was that Toulouse-Lautrec suffered greatly due to his physical ailments that were bothering him every single day of his life. One should not forget the circumstances of Henri’s childhood as well, as the rumors that were circulating around his household have definitely left him with a life-long trauma. Furthermore, his father never accepted his son’s decision to pursue a career of a professional artist, believing Henri was supposed to be a worthy heir of both the family estate and the business that made them prosperous. At the peak of his career when he was truly accepted and appreciated by the public, Toulouse-Lautrec was forced to struggle with the new illness as he had contracted syphilis, a sickness that did nothing but further impact already bad health. In order to somehow go through the day, Henri turned to alcohol that did a good job of dealing with pain and letting him sleep – however, the artist ultimately drunk himself into oblivion. He suffered a nervous breakdown in the year of 1899 after his mother, whom he was extremely close to, decided to leave Paris and abandon her son in the process. Consequently, Toulouse-Lautrec had to be hospitalized and was committed to a sanitarium for several months. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec died on September 9, 1901, at the Château Malromé in Saint-André-du-Bois. He was only 36 years of age.

Even though his biography is full of problems and ailments, Toulouse-Lautrec still managed to have incredible key influences on the art scene

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Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec – Rousse, 1889 (Left) —– Moulin Rouge Poster (Right) – Images via wikimedia.org

A Grim Tale with Fantastic Artistic Works

With a sad life story that is one of the rare careers capable of rivaling the circumstances of Vincent van Gogh, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec is a true example of a crying clown with a sadness that couldn’t be fixed. Always presenting himself as a happy and satisfied person, he channeled his rage and melancholy through his art. Henri left behind him more than 700 canvas paintings, 350 prints and posters, as well as over 5,000 drawings. With so much artwork under his belt, Toulouse-Lautrec is a seminal pioneer to a number of movements, heavily influencing the way artists used to think. Many experts have connected Henri with the 20th-century phenomenon called Pop-art, claiming Toulouse-Lautrec was an early forerunner to later icons like Andy Warhol. This may very well be the most impressive aspect of Henri’s art – it has actually influenced movements that emerged almost a hundred years after it was created. An impressive feat not many can claim they have in their artistic arsenal.

Featured Image: Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec – Photograph of the artist – Image via nbmaa.com
All images used for illustrative purposes only

YearExhibition TitleGallery/MuseumSolo/Group
2016O Triunfo Da Cor: O Pós ImpressionismoCentro Cultural Banco do Brasil (CCBB), São Paulo Group
2016Magie des Augenblicks, Stiftung MoritzburgKunstmuseum des Landes Sachsen-Anhalt, Halle, Saale Group
2016Easy Virtue: Prostitution in French Art, 1850–1910Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam Group
2016Van Gogh to Pollock: Modern Rebels Masterworks from the Albright-Knox Art GalleryMilwaukee Art Museum (MAM), Milwaukee, WI Group
2015Toulouse-Lautrec and La Vie Moderne: Paris 1880–1910Crocker Art Museum, Sacramento, CA Solo
2015Toulouse-Lautrec Prints: Art at the Edges of ModernityMary & Leigh Block Museum of Art, Evanston, IL Solo
2015Picasso to Francis BaconHangaram Art Museum, Seoul Group
2015Regisseure des Lichts. Von Rembrandt bis TurrellKunsthalle Bremen, Bremen Group
2015An Havel Und SpreeGalerie Barthelmess & Wischnewski, Berlin Group
2015Werke aus der Sammlung Fritz ScheinerGalerie Lisi Hämmerle, Bregenz Group
2014Elles - Litografias De Toulouse-LautrecMuseu do Chiado, Lisbon Solo
2014Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Der Weg in die ModerneBank Austria Kunstforum, Vienna Solo
2014Toulouse-Lautrec and La Vie Moderne: Paris 1880-1910Art Gallery of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta Solo
2014Henri de Toulouse-LautrecEmil Schumacher Museum, Hagen Solo
2014The Paris of Toulouse-Lautrec: Prints and PostersMuseum of Modern Art, New York City, NY Solo
2014Henri de Toulouse-LautrecMuseum of Fine Arts, Budapest, Budapest Solo
2014Toulouse-Lautrec and La Vie Moderne: Paris 1880–1910Columbus Museum of Art, Columbus, OH Solo
2014Impressions of Paris: Lautrec, Degas, DaumierNational Gallery of Australia, Canberra, ACT Group
2014Le choix de la modernité. Rodin, Lam, Picasso, BaconMusée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon, Lyon Group
2014The Grant and Peggy Reuber Collection of International Works on PaperMcIntosh Gallery, London, ON Group
2014Marks of Genius: 100 Extraordinary Drawings from the Minneapolis Institute of ArtsGrand Rapids Art Museum, Grand Rapids, MI Group
2014Gauguin to Warhol: 20th Century Icons from the Albright-Knox Art GallerySan Diego Museum of Art, San Diego, CA Group
2013Toulouse-Lautrec & His WorldFlint Institute of Arts, Flint, MI Solo
2013Toulouse-Lautrec and His WorldAllentown Art Museum, Allentown, PA Solo
2013Toulouse-Lautrec & His WorldNew Britain Museum of American Art, New Britain, CT Solo
2013The Age of Impressionism: Great French Paintings from the Sterling and Francine Clark Art InstituteMuseum of Fine Arts Houston, Houston, TX Group
2013Passport to ParisDenver Art Museum, Denver, CO Group
2013The William S. Paley, A Taste For ModernismMusée national des beaux-arts du Québec, Quebec City Group
2013Renoir to Chagall: Paris and the Allure of ColorJoslyn Art Museum, Omaha, NE Group
2012Toulouse-Lautrec, Paris & the Moulin RougeNational Gallery of Australia, Canberra, ACT Solo
2012Wheels UpRiverside Art Museum, Riverside, CA Group
2012Pleasure And OrderMuseo Nacional de Arte, MUNAL, Mexico City Group
2012Medieval to MonetThe Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford, CT Group
2012Misia, reine de ParisMusée d´Orsay, Paris Group
2012Pelle di DonnaTriennale Bovisa, Milan Group
2011Toulouse-Lautrec: The Maurice Joyant CollectionMitsubishi Ichigokan Museum, Tokyo Solo
2011Henri de Toulouse-LautrecStatens museum for kunst, Copenhagen Solo
2011Toulouse-Lautrec e la Parigi della Belle EpoqueFondazione Magnani, Rocca, Parma Solo
2011Toulouse-Lautrec in the Bradley Family Foundation CollectionLynden Sculpture Garden, Milwaukee, WI Solo
2011Toulouse-Lautrec and Jane Avril Beyond The Moulin RougeCourtauld Institute of Art, London Solo
2011Impressionism: Masterworks on PaperMilwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee, WI Group
2011Bonjour Japon: A Parisian Love Affair with Japanese ArtThe Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, MN Group
2011East-west: Japan and japonismVan Gogh Museum, Amsterdam Group
2011Degas, Lautrec, Zandò. Les folies de MontmartreScuderie del Castello Visconteo, Pavia Group
2011Cézanne Renoir Picasso & Co 40 Jahre Kunsthalle TübingenKunsthalle Tübingen, Tübingen Group
2010Toulouse-Lautrec's ParisSan Diego Museum of Art, San Diego, CA Solo
2010High Kicks and Low Life: Toulouse-Lautrec printsWalker Art Gallery, Liverpool Solo
2010Toulouse-Lautrec And The Belle Epoque In Paris And AthensThe Evagoras Lanitis Center, Limassol Solo
2010The John Deere Art CollectionFigge Art Museum, Davenport, IA Group
2010Romanticism to Modernism: Graphic Masterpieces from Piranesi to PicassoBoca Raton Museum of Art, Boca Raton, FL Group
2010De Dürer à Jan Fabre. Chefs-d’œuvreMusée d'Ixelles, BrusselsGroup
2010Van Gogh, Gauguin, Cézanne and Beyond: Post-Impressionist Masterpieces from the Musée d’OrsayThe de Young Museum, San Francisco, CA Group
2009Cafe and Cabaret: Toulouse-Lautrec's ParisMuseum of Fine Arts, Boston, Boston, MA Solo
2009Toulouse-Lautrec and his circleTokyu Bunkamura Inc., Tokyo Solo
2009Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Die Welt vom Montmartre in FarblithographienKulturelles Forum Langenfeld, Langenfeld Solo
2009Toulouse-Lautrec: Der intime BlickLandesgalerie am Oberösterreichischen Landesmuseum, Linz Solo
2009Henri de Toulouse-LautrecAltes Rathaus, Bayreuth Solo
2009Toulouse-Lautrec and ParisSterling and Francine Clark Art InstituteSolo
2009Important Works on PaperLeslie Sacks Fine Art, Los Angeles, CA Group
2009The Darker Side of LightThe National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC Group
2009The Dawn O'donell BequestRichard Martin Australian Art, Sydney, NSW Group
2009A Century of Portraiture Renoir, Modigliani, Picasso and other artists from the collectionPola Museum of Art, Kanagawa Group
2009Gala. 5 Sammler zeigen ihre FavoritenMuseum der bildenden Künste Leipzig, Leipzig Group
2009 A Circus Family: Picasso to LégerThe Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, MD Group
2009Monet to Matisse: French Masterworks from the Dixon Gallery and GardensAllentown Art Museum, Allentown, PA Group
2008Henri de Toulouse-LautrecMMK Museum Moderner Kunst, Stiftung Wörlen, Passau Solo
2008Toulouse-Lautrec and La Vie ParisienneGrand Rapids Art Museum, Grand Rapids, MI Solo
2008Toulouse-LautrecMönchehaus Museum Goslar, Goslar Solo
2008Toulouse-Lautrec und die Stars vom MonmartreStadtgalerie Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt Solo
2008Henri de Toulouse-LautrecNationalmuseum, Stockholm Solo
2008Invoking the Comic Muse: Toulouse-Lautrec's Parody of "The Sacred Grove"Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton, NJ Solo
2007Toulouse-Lautrec, O artista do instanteMuseu de Arte de São Paulo Assis ChateaubriandSolo
2006Toulouse-Lautrec, Paris. Plakat. PublicitéHorst Janssen Museum, Oldenburg Solo
2006Toulouse-Lautrec y el origen del cartel modernoMuseu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, Barcelona Solo
2006Henri de Toulouse-LautrecKunsthal Rotterdam, Rotterdam Solo
2005The Art of The Poster, Toulouse-Lautrec and His ContemporariesBoca Raton Museum of Art, Boca Raton, FL Solo
2005Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, Das grafische WerkKunstmuseum Bonn, Bonn Solo
2005Toulouse-Lautrec, Artist of MontmartreSamuel P. Harn Museum of Art, Gainesville, FL Solo
2005Toulouse-Lautrec and MontmartreThe Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL Solo
2005Toulouse-Lautrec y el cartel de la Belle Époque. Colección Musée D´IxellesFundación MAPFRE, Madrid Solo
2005Toulouse Lautrec and MontmartreThe National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC Solo
2005Toulouse-LautrecKunsthalle der Hypo-Kulturstiftung, Munich Solo
2004Henri de Toulouse-LautrecALTANA Kulturstiftung im Sinclair-Haus, Bad Homburg Solo
2004Toulouse-Lautrec and the Art of the French PosterThe Bowes Museum, Barnard Castle, County Durham Solo
2004Toulouse-Lautrec: Master of the Moulin RougeThe College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA Solo
2004From Paris with LoveNGV National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, VIC Solo
2004Henrie de Toulouse LautrecKunstsammlungen Chemnitz, Chemnitz Solo
2004Toulouse-Lautrec, Master of the Moulin RougeThe Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, MD Solo
2003Toulouse-Lautrec, Master of the Moulin RougeTampa Museum of Art, Tampa, FL Solo
2003Toulouse-Lautrec: EllesStaatsgalerie Stuttgart, Stuttgart Solo
2003Henri de Toulouse-LautrecKunstmuseum Dieselkraftwerk Cottbus, Cottbus Solo
2003Paris by Night: Lithographs by Toulouse-LautrecCourtauld Institute of Art, London Solo
2002Toulouse-Lautrec et l'afficheMusée Maillol, Fondation Dina Vierny, Paris Solo
2002Toulouse-Lautrec, toutes les affiches et leur environnementMusée d'Ixelles, Brussels Solo
2001Toulouse-Lautrec, Master of the Moulin RougeNorth Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, NC Solo
2001Toulouse-Lautrec, The Myth of WomanMuseum of Contemporary Art, Basil & Elise Goulandris Foundation, Hora, Andros Solo
2001Toulouse-Lautrec, Artist of MontmartreKrannert Art Museum, Champaign, IL Solo
2000Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec: Pariser LebenStaatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe Solo
2000Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Werke aus dem Sprengel Museum HannoverStädtische Galerie in der Reithalle Schloß Neuhaus, Paderborn Solo
2000Those Women: Toulouse-Lautrec's Elles and French Images of ProstitutionSterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, The Clark, Williamstown, MA Solo
1999Lithograthy of Toulouse-LautrecThe State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg Solo
1999Varieté-Tänzerinnen um 1900, Vom Sinnenrausch zur TanzmoderneGeorg Kolbe Museum, Berlin Solo
1996Henri de Toulouse-LautrecFundación Juan March, Madrid Solo
1996Toulouse-LautrecLos Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, CA Solo
1996Toulouse-Lautrec in The Metropolitan Museum of ArtThe Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, NY Solo
1996Henri de Toulouse-LautrecMie Prefectural Art Museum, Tsu City Solo
1994Toulouse-Lautrec: Marcelle Lender in "Chilpéric"The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC Solo
1994Henri de Toulouse Lautrec, Palazzo FortiGalleria d'Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, Verona Solo
1992Toulouse-Lautrec : La collection Baldwin M. BaldwinMusée national des beaux-arts du Québec, Quebec City Solo
1992Toulouse-LautrecGaleries nationales du Grand Palais, Paris Solo
1992Toulouse-Lautrec: The Solitude of 'La Vie Moderne'Norton Simon Museum of Art, Pasadena, CA Solo
1991Toulouse-LautrecHayward Gallery, London Solo
1991Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec: The Baldwin M. Baldwin CollectionThe Art Museum of South Texas, Corpus Christi, TX Solo
1990Toulouse LautrecTokyu Bunkamura Inc., Tokyo Solo
1987Toulouse-Lautrec, Das gesamte graphische WerkNeue Nationalgalerie, Berlin Solo
1985Henri de Toulouse-LautrecMuseum of Modern Art, New York City, NY Solo
1984Graphic Works by Toulouse-LautrecIndianapolis Museum of Art (IMA), Indianapolis, IN Solo
1983Prints and Drawings by Henri de Toulouse-LautrecKrannert Art Museum, Champaign, IL Solo
1981Toulouse-Lautrec Prints at the MuseumSaint Louis Art Museum, Saint Louis, MO Solo
1979Paintings by Toulouse-LautrecThe Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL Solo
1973Toulouse-Lautrec GraphicsSaint Louis Art Museum, Saint Louis, MO Solo
1972Toulouse Lautrec: The Comedy of ArtBoston University Art Gallery - BUAG, Boston, MA Solo
1969Toulouse-LautrecNMWA The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo Solo
1968Toulouse-LautrecNational Museum of Modern Art Kyoto (MOMAK), Kyoto Solo
1965Toulouse-LautrecNational Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, ON Solo
1964Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, portraits and figure studiesCharles E. Slatkin Galleries, New York City, NY Solo
1964Toulouse-Lautrec in the Art Institute CollectionThe Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL Solo
1963Toulouse-LautrecFrankfurter Kunstverein, Frankfurt Solo
1962Toulouse Lautrec, litho's en affichesGemeentemuseum Den Haag, The Hague Solo
1961Henri de Toulouse-LautrecHaus der Kunst München, Munich Solo
1961Toulouse-Lautrec PostersThe Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL Solo
1960Prints by Toulouse-LautrecThe National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC Solo
1959Prints by Toulouse-LautrecThe National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC Solo
1958Toulouse-Lautrec. EllesNorton Simon Museum of Art, Pasadena, CA Solo
1957Works by Toulouse–LautrecDallas Museum of Art, Dallas, TX Solo