Lygia Clark - Photo of the artist - Image via world use contact

Lygia Clark/ Lygia Clark

Brazil 1920 - 1988

Installation, Sculpture, Monochrome Painting

Lygia Clark
Lygia Clark
Female
Brazil
1920

Heavily influenced by Constructivism and the Bauhaus school concepts, Lygia Clark was a Brazilian geometric abstraction painter and an installation artist. She is primarily remembered for her participation in the Brazilian Constructivist movement, her innovative approach to modular sculpture and the participatory art that made her a singularly pioneering force in the world of international art. Although her creative expression varies quite a bit depending on which stage of her career you are examining, Clark was predominantly recognized for her system-based paintings and metal sculptures the viewers were invited to rearrange. Lygia also experimented with ephemeral art, finding much success with this approach as well.

An image of Lygia's The Abandonment of Art, a piece that in many ways portrayed her life decision to leave modern art
Lygia Clark – The Abandonment of Art – Image via artobserved.com

Early Career of Lygia Clark

In 1920, Lygia was born in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. She decided to become a full-time artist in the year of 1947 – she moved to Rio de Janeiro in order to study alongside the Brazilian landscape architect Roberto Burle Marx. Between 1950 and 1952, she also studied with Isaac Dobrinsky, Fernand Léger and Arpad Szenes in Paris. In 1953, she became one of the founding members of Rio’s Frente group of artists. Clark also participated in Rio de Janeiro’s first National Concrete Art Exhibition, an event that will prove to be one of Clark’s frequent trips to Brazil. In the first decade of her career, Clark devoted her time to painting and sculpture, constantly experimenting and testing new techniques. However, after 1966, Clark started to claim that she has abandoned the processes of making art[1], instead focusing on educating others about it.

Every modern museum showed they would like to use something from Clark's body of work, so they all fought for her objects fiercely
Lygia Clark – Bichos (Critter), 1959 – Image via artsjournal.com

Sensory Observation and the Popular Tropicália movement

During the time she was a teacher, Clark explored the idea of sensory perception. Suddenly, she returned to creating art – beholding her work suddenly became a multisensory experience in which the spectator became an active participant[2]. A good example of how she used to think at the time was her Nostalgia of the Body series. This project relied on participant’s individual experiences occurring directly in their bodies. These pieces addressed the simultaneous existence of opposites within the same space: internal and external, metaphorical and literal, male and female. Another example of Clark’s fascination with human interaction is her 1967 piece O eu e o tu (The I and the You). It consisted of two industrial rubber suits joined together by an umbilical-like cord. The participants wearing the suits would be joined together but unable to see one another, forming an almost psycho-sexual bond between them.

Lygia Clark placed herself in the heart of the international stage by launching an idea of multisensory experience in art

Clark's life was an inspiration for many Brazilian artists as her decisions directly impacted the direction of her nation's art
Lygia Clark – Dialogue Goggles, 1968 – Image via wikiart.org

Artistic Styles and References of Lygia Clark

During the early part of Clark’s career, she focused on creating small monochromatic paintings which were mostly done in black, gray and white. During the 1960s, her work became more conceptual and she used soft objects that could be manipulated by the art spectator. However, her greatest accomplishment was achieved when Clark co-founded the Neo-Concrete movement[3], which was joined by a fellow Brazilian Hélio Oiticica. The Neo-Concretists were interested in how an artwork could be manipulated by the spectator and how art could be used to express complex human realities – interests that naturally placed Clark in the midst of the movement’s conceptual core. Throughout her career, Clark’s work has involved an exploration of art’s effect on spectators. It should be noted that one of her primary goals was to appeal to the average, everyday person, not just to focus on the bourgeois crowd.

Lygia Clark is primarily remembered for her role within the Neo-Concrete movement, an artistic current that was interested in how an artwork could be manipulated by the spectator

Clark made objects that every modern museum in Europe wanted to place in their collections, like the presented Sundial
Lygia Clark – Sundial, 1960 – Image via nyoobserver.com

Art Therapy and Her Later Life

Lygia garnered much attention and recognition from the art community due to her roles in effectuating contemporary avant-garde ideas. However, between 1979 and 1988, Clark moved more toward art therapy than actually creating new works. She began using her art to treat psychotic and mildly disturbed patients. Experimentations did not always result in the way Lygia expected them to, but the effects of this unorthodox method were often astonishing. Clark returned to Rio de Janeiro in 1977. Her later works were more abstract and holistic with a focus on psychotherapy and healing[4], obviously heavily influenced by the experiences she had with psychotic and neurotic patients. In 1988, she died of a heart attack in her home.

Clark devoted her entire career to finding innovative and unconventional tools and methods of involving her viewers in unprecedented psychological and physical ways

Clark's body of works contains many objects such as Opposite Creature, a piece made in 1961
Lygia Clark – Opposite Creature, 1961 – Image via natalieseroussi.com

Her Importance in Brazilian Art and External Scenes

We do everything so automatically that we have forgotten the poignancy of smell, of physical anguish, of tactile sensations of all kinds. This interesting statement made by Clark herself offers a perfect insight into how her creative mindset worked – Clark endeavored to involve the viewer in her works in an unprecedented psychological and physical way. And by doing so, she was creating multisensory experiences for her audience that are arguably still unrivaled by any similar creative body of works to this day. In return, Clark is now remembered as a true artistic innovator who had a strong impact on various historical movements and as someone who successfully sought to redefine the relationship between art and society.

This artist is represented by Alison Jacques Gallery London.

References:

  1. Bessa, S., Fer, B., Macel, C., Clark: The Abandonment of Art, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 2014
  2. Best, S., Visualizing Feeling: Affect and the Feminine Avant-garde, I.B.Tauris; Reprint edition, 2014
  3. Carvajal, R., Rolnik, S., Ruiz, S., Salzstein, S., David, C., Sanchez, O., The Experimental Exercise of Freedom: Lygia Clark, Gego, Mathias Goeritz, Helio Oiticica, And Mira Schendel, The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, 2000
  4. Anonymous, Lygia Clark’s Works, Alison Jacques Gallery [Aug 7, 2017]

Featured image: Lygia Clark – Photo of the artist – Image via artlogic-res.com
All images used for illustrative purposes only.

YearExhibition TitleGallery/MuseumSolo/Group
2017Radical Women: Latin American Art, 1960–1985 Hammer Museum, Los Angeles, CAGroup
2017Doubles, Dobros, Pliegues, Pares, Twins, MitadesThe Warehouse, Dallas, TXGroup
2017Gnr PresentsGaleria Nara Roesler, New York City, NYGroup
2016Lygia Clark - Modulated spaceLuhring Augustine Gallery, New York City, NYSolo
2015Possibilities of the Object: Experiments in Modern and Contemporary Brazilian Art Fruitmarket Gallery, Edinburgh, UKGroup
2015History is Now: 7 Artists Take on Britain| Hayward Gallery, London, UKGroup
2015Lygia Clark: Work From The 1950SAlison Jacques Gallery, LondonSolo
2014Lygia Clark: The Abandonment of Art Museum of Modern Art, New YorkSolo
2014Lygia Clark: Organic Places Henry Moore Institute, Leeds, UKSolo
2014Permission to be Global| Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MAMuseum of Fine Arts, Boston, MAGroup
2014The Modern Lens: International Photography and the Tate Collection, Tate St Ives, Cornwall, UKGroup
2014Radical Geometry Royal Academy of Arts, London, UKGroup
2013The Brazilian Pavilion, Giardini 55th Venice Biennale, Venice, ItalyGroup
2013Concrete Remains: Postwar and Contemporary Art from Brazil, curated by Jacopo Crivelli Visconti Tierney Gardarin, New York, NYGroup
2013Brasiliana: Installations from 1960 to the Present Schirn Kunsthalle, FrankfurtGroup
2013The Temptation of the Diagram Andrea Rosen Gallery, New York, NYGroup
2013Edge, Order, Rupture Galerie Lelong, New York, NYGroup
2012Lygia Clark: Retrospective Itau Cultural, Sao Paulo, BrazilSolo
2012Elles: Women Artists from the Centre Pompidou Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, WAGroup
2012Re.act.feminism 2 Fundacio Antoni Tapies, Barcelona, SpainGroup
2012Constructed Dialogues: Concrete, Geometric, and Kinetic Art from the LatinAmerican Art The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, TXGroup
2012Spectres of Artaud. Language and art in the 1950s Museo Reina Sofia, Madrid, SpainGroup
2012News from Nowhere firstsite, Colchester, UKGroup
2012Superbodies Z33, Cultuurcentrum, Hasselt, BelgiumGroup
2011A Rua Museum of Contemporary Art Antwerp, BelgiumGroup
201112th Istanbul Biennial Istanbul, TurkeyGroup
2011Touched: A space of Relations Bitforms Gallery, New York, NYGroup
2011Brazil: Reinvention of Modern Gagosian Gallery, Paris, FranceGroup
2010Lygia Clark: Estudos e Maquete Alison Jacques Gallery, London, UKSolo
2010MOVE! Choreographing You Hayward Gallery, London, UKGroup
2010Elles, Centre Pompidou, Paris, FranceGroup
2010The Traveling Show, Jumex Collection, Mexico City, MexicoGroup
2010EmporteMoiSweep Me Off My Feet, Musee d'art contemporain du Val de Marne, Vitry sur Seine, FranceGroup
2010A History of Irritated Material, Raven Row, London, UKGroup
2010Constructive Spirit: Abstract Art in South and North America, The Newark Museum, NJGroup
2010Bense und die Kunste ZKM, Karlsruhe, GermanyGroup
2009Os Caminhos da Arte entre a França e o Brasil Pinakotheke, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
2009Dimension Konstruktiver Kunst in Brasilien: Die Sammlung Adolpho Leirner Haus Konstruktiv, Zurich, SwitzerlandGroup
2009Sites of Latin American Abstraction Museum of Latin American Art, Long Beach, CAGroup
2009When Lives Become Form: Contemporary Brazilian Arts Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San Francisco, CAGroup
2009EmporteMoi Sweep Me Off My Feet Musee National des Beaux Arts du Quebec,CanadaGroup
2009North Looks South: Building the Latin American Art Collection MFAH, Museum of Fine Arts Houston, TXGroup
2009ARTE ? VIDA Museo de Arte Carrillo Gil, Mexico City, MexicoGroup
2009Neoconcretismo 50 Anos Museu de Arte Moderna Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
2009Materia Gris, Exposición colectiva Galeria Cayon, Madrid, SpainGroup
2009Desenhar Lugares, Marilia Razuk Galeria de Arte, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2009Concreto, Instituto Tomie Ohtake, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2009A ContreCorpsCountering the Body, Frac Lorraine, Metz, FranceGroup
2009The Quick and the Dead Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MNGroup
2009Pop Up! Ludwig Forum fur Internationale Kunst, Aachen, GermanyGroup
2009Performer Zacheta National Gallery of Art, Warsaw, PolandGroup
2009Hot Spots Rio de Janeiro, Brazil MilanoTorino Los Angeles 1956-1969 Kunsthaus, Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandGroup
2008Heavy Metal. Die unerklärliche Leichtigkeit eines Materials Kunsthalle zu Kiel der Christian, Albrechts-Universitat, Kiel, GermanyGroup
2008KroboClark: Lygia Clark & Katarzyna Kobro, ms2 Museum Sztuki, Lodz, PolandGroup
2008The Art of Participation SFMOMA, San Francisco, CAGroup
2008Collection Isabel and Agustin Coppel: Mexico Expected Unexpected La Maison Rouge, Paris; traveled to Santa Cruz de Tenerife and the NetherlandsGroup
2008Performing the City Kunst Aktionismus im Stadt Raum 60er und 70er Jahre, Lothringer 13, Standtische Kunsthalle Munich, Munich, GermanyGroup
2008When Lives Become Form Museum of Contemporary Art Tokyo; travelled to Hiroshima, JapanGroup
2008Um Século de Arte Brasileira Coleção Gilberto Chateaubriand, MASC Museu de Arte de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil; ARCO, Madrid, SpainGroup
2008Diálogo Concreto: Design e Construtivismo no Brazil Caixa Cultural, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; traveled to Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2008Laços do Olhar Instituto Tomie Ohtake, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2008Peripheral vision and Collective Body Museion, Bolzano, ItalyGroup
2008Tropicália Museu de Arte Moderna Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
2008Poética da Percepção Instituto Tomie Ohtake, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2008Face to Face The Daros Collections II Daros Exhibitions, Zurich, SwitzerlandGroup
2008Arte nos es Vida: Actions by Artists of the Americas Museo del Barrio, New York, NYGroup
2008Geo Metric: Prints and Drawings from the Collection MoMA, New York, NYGroup
2008Time & Place: Rio de Janeiro Brazil 1956-1964 Moderna Museet, StockholmGroup
2007New Perspectives in Latin American Art, 1930-2006: Selections from a Decade of Acquisitions MoMA, New York, NYGroup
2007WACK! Art and the Feminist Revolution MOCA, Los Angeles; traveled to Washington DC, New York, NY and CanadaGroup
2007Anos 70 Instituto Tomie Ohtake, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2007Ó(s) Cinético(s) Instituto Tomie Ohtake, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2007Mirada; Latinoamericanos do MAC USP no MemorialMuseu de Arte Contemporanea da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2007The Geometry of Hope Grey Art Gallery, NYU, New York; traveled to Austin, TXGroup
2007Arte e Ousadia; o Brasil na Coleção Sattamini Museu de Arte de Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2007Assis Chateaubriand, MASP Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2007Desenho Construtivista Brasileiro MAM, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
2007Romantischer Konzeptualismus Kunsthalle Nuremberg, Nurmeberg traveled to Vienna, AustriaGroup
2007Beneath the Underdog Gagosian Gallery, Madison Avenue, New York, NYGroup
2007Feedback Laboral, Gijon, SpainGroup
2007Um Século de Arte Brasileira; Coleção Gilberto Chateaubriand, MAM| Museu de Arte Moderna da Bahia, Salvador, BrazilGroup
2007Live,Work: Performance into Drawing MoMA, New York, NYGroup
2006Lygia Clark, da obra ao acontecimento: somos o molde a você cabe o sopro..., Pinacoteca do Estado de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, BrazilSolo
2006Abrigo Poético Diálogos com Lygia Clark Museu de Arte Contemporanea de Niteroi, BrazilSolo
2006Um Século de Arte Brasileira; Coleção Gilberto Chateaubriand Museu Oscar Niemeyer, Curitiba, BrazilGroup
2006Concreta 56. A Raiz da Forma Museu de Arte Moderna, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2006Certain Encounters: Daros Latinamerica Collection The Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery, Vancouver, CanadaGroup
2006Um Século de Arte Brasileira; Coleção Gilberto Chateaubriand, MAM Museu de Arte Moderna, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
2006MAM [NA] OCA Museu de Arte Moderna, Sao Paolo, BrazilGroup
2006Arte Moderna em Contexto, Colecao ABN AMRO Real Museu de Arte Moderna, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
2006Die Idee des Modernismo Brasileiro Museum fur Volkerkunde, Hamburg; travelled to Dessauer and Altenburg, GermanyGroup
2005Lygia Clark, da l'oeuvre á l'événement. Nous sommes le moule. Avous donner le soufflé, Musee Le des Beaux Arts, Nantes, FranceSolo
2005Lygia Clark: Body Memory Spacex Gallery, Exeter (Documentary Screening)Solo
2005L'OEil moteur, Art optique et cinétique 1950-1975 Musee d'Art Moderne et Contemporain, Strasbourg, FranceGroup
2005Arte Brasileira Hoje MAM, Museu de Arte Moderna Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
2005O Corpo na Arte Contemporânea Brasileira Itau Cultural, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2005Expresso Abstrato Museu Imperial, Petropolis, BrazilGroup
2005Através, ou a Geometria CorrompidaGaleria Bergamin, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2005Collection RemixedBronx Museum of the Arts, New York, NYGroup
2005Marie Ange Guillemot: Never HiroshimaHiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art, JapanGroup
2005Fait Vos Jeux!Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein, Liechtenstein; travelled to Siegen, Berlin, Zurich, and Amstelveen, NetherlandsGroup
2005Open Systems: Rethinking Art c.1970 Tate Modern, London, UKGroup
200550 Jahre Years DOCUMENTA: 1955-2005Kunsthalle Fridericianum, KasselGroup
2005Soto Construção da ImaterialidadeCentro Cultural Banco do Brasil; travelled to Sao Paulo, Brazil, Curitiba, and Brasilia, BrazilGroup
2005Tropicália: a revolution in Brazilian Culture Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago; travelled to New York, London and Vienna, AustriaGroup
2005Arte latinoamericano XX: Coleccion Costantini MALBA, Buenos Aires, ArgentinaGroup
2004O Pensamento Mudo de Lygia Clark Dan Galeria, Sao Paulo, BrazilSolo
2004Cinquenta 50 Museu de Arte Moderna, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2004Brazil: Body Nostalgia National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo and KyotoGroup
2004Inverted UtopiasMuseum of Fine Arts, Houston, TXGroup
2004Beyond Geometry: Experiments in Form, 1940s-1970sLos Angeles County Museum ofArt, Los Angeles; travelled to Miami, FLGroup
2004Aimer, travailler, exister: propositions communautaire dans l'après 1968 MAMCO,Musee d'art moderne et contemporain, Geneva, SwitzerlandGroup
2004Artists' Favourites ICA, London, UKGroup
2004Casa - Poética do Espaço na Arte Brasileira Museu da Vale do Rio Doce, Vitoria, BrazilGroup
2004Woman; Metamorphosis of ModernityFundacio Joan Miro, Barcelona, SpainGroup
2004Hors d'oeuvre: Ordre et Désordres de la NourritureMusee d'Art Contemporain de, Bordeaux, FranceGroup
2004Diálogos: Arte Latinoamericano desde la Colección Cisneros Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Santiago, Chile; travelled to Bogota, ColombiaGroup
2004Entre a Razão e a Emoção: Acervo da Bolsa do RioBolsa de Valores do Rio, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
2004Poéticas da InfinitoMuseu de Arte Contemporanea de Niteroi, BrazilGroup
2004ARCO Parque Ferial Juan Carlos I, Madrid, SpainGroup
2004Exposição AcervoLurixs Arte Contemporanea, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
2003Geometrías: Abstracción Geometrica Latinoamericana en la Colección Cisneros Museode Arte Latinoamericano de Buenos Aires; travelled to UruguayGroup
2003Geométricos Leo Bahia Arte Contemporanea Belo Horizonte, BrazilGroup
2003Poema Planar Espacial, Sesc Campos dos Goytacazes; travelled to Nova Friburgo, Riode Janeiro, BrazilGroup
2003Cuasicorpus: Arte concreto y neoconcreto de Brasil Museo Tamayo Arte Contemporaneo, Mexico City; travelled to Monterrey, MexicoGroup
2003Arte Brasileira: da Revolução de 30 ao pósguerra MAM, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
2003Pulse: Art Healing and Transformation ICA, Boston, MAGroup
2003Ordem x Liberdade MAM, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
2003A Subversão dos Meios Instituto Itau Cultural, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2003Escultores Esculturas Pinakotheke, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2003O Sal da Terra Museu Vale do Rio Doce, Vila Velha, BrazilGroup
2002Ökonomien Der Zeit, Ludwig Museum, Cologne; travelled to BerlinGroup
2002Arte Brasileira na Coleção Fadel Centro Cultural Banco do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
2002Paralelos: Arte Brasileira da Segunda Metade do Século XX em Contexto: Coléccion CisnerosMAM, Sao Paulo, Brazil; travelled to Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
2002Ceará Discovers Brazil AgainCentro Dragao do Mar de Arte e Cultura, Fortaleza, BrazilGroup
2002Espelho Selvagem Arte Moderna no Brasil da Primeira Metade do Século XX, Coleção Nemirovsky, Pinacoteca do Estado, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2002ArcoParque Ferial Juan Carlos I, Madrid, SpainGroup
2002Arquitetura para el Arte: Malba Coleccion Costantini Museo de Arte Latinoamericano de Buenos Aires, ArgentinaGroup
2002Geométricos e CinéticosGabinete de Arte Raquel Arnaud, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2002The Object Sculpture The Henry Moore Institute, Leeds, UKGroup
2002Vivências: Dialogues between the works of Brazilian artists from the 1960's to 2002 The New Art Gallery of Walsall, Walsall, UKGroup
2002Acervo em Papel MAC, Niteroi, BrazilGroup
2002Diálogo, Antagonismo e Replicação na Coleção Sattamini, MAC Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; travelled to Instituto Tomie OhtakeGroup
2002Arquipélagos: O Universo Plural do MAM MAM, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
2002Caminhos do Contemporâneo: 1952-2002 Paco Imperial, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
2002Genealogia do Espaço Galeria do Parque das Ruinas, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
2002Coletiva Galeria Baro Senna, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2002O Plano como Estrutura da FormaMAM, Villa-Lobos, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2001Lygia Clark Espaco Antonio Bernardo, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilSolo
2001Hiroshima Collection Musee du Calais, Calais, FranceGroup
2001Experiment: Art in Brazil 1958-2000 The Museum of Modern Art Oxford, Oxford, UKGroup
2001Brazil: Body and Soul Guggenheim Museum, New York, NYGroup
2001Trajetória da Luz na Arte Brasileira Instituto Itau Cultural, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
20017th International Istanbul Biennial Special room, Istanbul, TurkeyGroup
2001Modernismo em Minas: Ícones Referencais Instituto Itau Cultural, Belo Horizonte; travelled to Penapolis, BrazilGroup
2001Beyond Preconceptions: The Sixties Experiment, Collection of Modern Art National Gallery, Prague; travelled to Warsaw, Philadelphia, Florida, California, Sao Paulo, Brazil and Group
2001Brazil: Modern to Contemporary Frederico Seve Gallery Latincollector, New York, NYGroup
2001Más allá de los preconceptos; El experimento de los sesenta Museo de Arte Moderno, Buenos Aires, ArgentinaGroup
2001Bienal 50 Anos: uma homenagem a Ciccillo Matarazzo, Núcleo histórico MAC de Sao Paulo, Brazil, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2001Coleção Liba e Rubem KnijnikArte Brasileira Contemporânea, MARGS, Porto Alegre, BrazilGroup
2001Aquarela Brasileira Centro Cultural Light, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
2000Arte Conceitual e Conceitualismos: anos 70 no acervo do MAC USP Galeria de Arte do Sesi, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2000Beyond Preconceptions: The Sixties Experiment, ICI Independent Curators International, New York, NYGroup
2000Ice on Peut Toucher Galerie du TNB, Rennes, FranceGroup
2000Vivencias Lebenserfahrung Generali Foundation, Vienna, AustriaGroup
2000Brasil + 500 Mostra do Redescobrimento: Arte Contemporânea Fundacao Bienal, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
2000Exposição Brasil Europa: Encontros no Século XX Conjunto Cultural da Caixa, Brasilia, BrazilGroup
2000Heterotopías Museo Reina Sofia, Madrid, SpainGroup
2000Ficciones Museo Reina Sofia, Madrid, SpainGroup
200012th Mostra da Gravura de Curitiba; Marcas do Corpo, Dobras da Alma Museu da Vale do Rio Doce, Curitiba, BrazilGroup
2000Coleção Sattamini: dos materiais às diferenças internas MAC de Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
2000Quando o Brasil era Moderno: Artes Plásticas no Rio de Janeiro de 1905-1960 Paco Imperial, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
2000Século 20: Arte do Brasil, na Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian Centro de Arte Moderna Jose de Azeredo Perdigao, Lisbon, PortugalGroup
2000Geometric Abstraction: Latin American Art Harvard University Art Museum, Cambridge, MAGroup
2000Situaçoes: Arte Brasileira Anos 70 Fundacao Casa Franca Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1999Lygia Clark Galeria Brito Cimino, Sao Paulo, BrazilSolo
1999Lygia Clark: Retrospective MAM, Sao Paulo, BrazilSolo
1999Abertura de Sala Lygia Clark MAM, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilSolo
1999Heranças Contemporâneas III MAC, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1999LHL: Lygia Clark, Hélio Oiticica, Lygia Pape Galeria de Caixa Economica Federal, BrazilGroup
1999Viva Brasil,Galerie 1900-2000, Paris, FranceGroup
1999Global Conceptualism: Points of Origin 1950s-1980s Queens Museum of Art, New York,NY; travelled to Minneapolis, MN and Miami, FLGroup
1999The Experimental Exercise of Freedom MOCA, Los Angeles, CAGroup
1999Circa 1968 Museu Serralves, Porto, PortugalGroup
1999Á Primeira VistaMAM, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1999L'Art Medécine Musee Picasso, Antibes, FranceGroup
19993rd International Biennial SITE Santa Fe, NMGroup
1999Panorama da Arte Brasileira do Século XX: Coleção Gilberto Chateaubriand Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires, ArgentinaGroup
199824ª Bienal Internacional de São Paulo, Brazil, Sala Especial: Antropofagia e Histórias do Canabalismo e Um e Entre Outro s Fundacao Bienal, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1998Arte Construtiva no Brasil : Coleção Adolho Leirner MAM, Sao Paulo, Brazil; travelled to Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1998Espelho da BienalMAC Niteroi, BrazilGroup
1998Out of Actions Between Performance and the Object: 1949-1979 Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles; travelled to Vienna, Barcelona, and TokyoGroup
1998Trinta Anos de 68CCBB, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1997Lygia Clark: Retrospective Fundacio Antoni Tapies, Barcelona; travelled to Marseille, Porto, Brussels and Rio de Janeiro, BrazilSolo
19971ª Bienal de Artes Visuais do Mercosul Fundacao Bienal de Artes Visuais do Mercosul, Porto Alegre, BrazilGroup
1997Documenta X, Kassel, GermanyGroup
1997Escultura Brasileira: Perfil de Uma Identidade Banco Safra, Sao Paulo, Brazil; traveled to Washington DCGroup
1997Tridimensionalidade na Arte Brasileiro do Século XX Itau Cultural, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1996Inside the Visible Whitechapel Gallery, London; travelled to Kortrijk, Belgium, Boston, MA, Washington DC, and Perth, AustraliaGroup
1996L'informe, mode d'emploi Centre Georges Pompidou, ParisGroup
1996Arte Brasileira: 50 Anos de História no Acervo do MAC-USP: 1920-1970MAC, SaoPaulo, BrazilGroup
1996Desexp(l)os(ign)ição Casa das Rosas, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1996Ex Libris Home PagePacos das Artes, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1996O Mundo de Mario Scenberg Casa das Rosas, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1996Têndencias Construtivas no Acervo do MAC-USP: Construção, Medida e Proporção, Centro Cultural Banco de Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1995Latin American Women Artists 1915-1995 Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee,WIGroup
199422ª Bienal Internacional de São Paulo Brazil, Fundacao Bienal, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1994Bienal Brasil Século XXFundacao Bienal, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1994LivroObjeto: a fronteira dos vazios Centro Cultural Banco do Brasil; travelled to SaoPaulo, BrazilGroup
1994O Efêmero na Arte Brasileira: Anos 60-70, Instituto Itau Cultural, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1993Lygia Clark MAP, Belo Horizonte, BrazilSolo
1993A Arte Brasileira no Mundo, uma Trajetória: 24 Artistas Brasileiros Dan Galeria, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1993100 Anos de Arte ModernaMuseu Nacional de Belas Artes, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1993Latin American Artists of the Twentieth Century Kunsthalle Koln, Koln, Germany; travelled to New York, NYGroup
1993Ultramodern: The Art of Contemporary Brazil National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington DCGroup
1993Arte BrasileiraMuseu de Arte de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, BrazilGroup
1993Premier Triennale des Ameriques Espace Sculpture-Parc Expositions, Maubeuge, FranceGroup
1993Brasil: Segni D'Arte Libri e Video 1950-1993 Fondazione Scientifica QueriniGroup
1993Stampalia, Venice; travelled to Milan Florence and Rome, ItalyGroup
1992Retrospective, Dan Galeria, Sao Paulo, BrazilDan Galeria, Sao Paulo, BrazilSolo
19921º A Caminho de Niterói: Coleção João Sattamini Paco Imperial, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1992Brasilien: Entdeckung und Selbstentdeckung Kunsthaus ZurichGroup
1992Latin American Artists of the Twentieth CenturyCentre Georges Pompidou, Paris; travelled to Seville, SpainGroup
1992Branco Dominante Galeria de Arte Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1992American Bride of the Sun Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp, BelgiumGroup
1992Festival of Brazilian Culture Zurich, SwitzerlandGroup
1992Diversité Latino Americaine Galerie 1900-2000, Paris, FranceGroup
1991Abstracionismo Geométrico e Informal: aspectos da vanguarda brasileira dos anos 50 Pinacoteca do Estado, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1991Construtivismo: Arte Cartaz 40 50 60 Museu de Arte Contempora^nea-USP, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1990CoerênciaTransformação, Gabinete de Arte Raquel Arnaud, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1989Art in Latin America: the Modern Era 1820-1980 Hayward Gallery, London; travelled toMadrid and StockholmGroup
1989Pequenas Grandezas dos Anos 50Gabinete de Arte Cleide Wanderley, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1988Brazil Projects, Institute for Art and Urban Resources, Inc, New YorkGroup
1988The Latin American Spirit: Art and Artists in the United States 1920-1970 Bronx Museum of the Arts, New York; traveled to El Paso, San Diego, Florida, Puerto RicoGroup
1987Lygia Clark Museu de Arte Contemporanea da Universidade, Sao Paulo, BrazilSolo
19879º Salão Nacional de Artes Plástica LygiaGroup
1987Clark e Hélio Oiticica MAC, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1987Modernidade: arte brasileiro do século XX MAM, Sao Paulo, Brazil; travelled to ParisGroup
1987Projeto Arte Brasileira: Anos 50 MAB Faap, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1987Abstracionismo Geométrico e Informal: aspectos da vanguarda brasileira dos anos 50 Funarte, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1987Algumas Mulheres Galeria de Arte Ipanema, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1987As Bienais no Acervo do MAC: 1951 - 1985 Museu de Arte Contemporanea USP, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1987Ao Colecionador: Homenagem a Gilberto Chateaubriand MAM, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1987O Ofício da Arte: Pintura Sesc, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1987Abstracionismo Geométrico: Concretismo e Neoconcretismo FUNARTE, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1987Escultura: Tendência e Singularidade Museu de Arte Contemporanea Jose Pancetti, Campinas, BrazilGroup
1986Lygia Clark Paco Imperial, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilSolo
1986Retrospective (with Helio Oiticica), 9º Salão Nacional de Artes Plásticas Paco Imperial, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1986Coleçao Rubem Knijik: Arte Brasleiros anos 60 70 80 Margs, Porto Alegre, BrazilGroup
1986JK e os Anos 50: Uma Visão de Cultura e do Cotidiano Galeria Investiarte, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
19861st Exposição InternacionalEsculturas Efêmeras Fundacao Democrito da Rocha, Fortaleza, BrazilGroup
19858ª Bienal Internacional de São Paulo, Brazil Fundacao Bienal, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
19858º Salão Nacional de Artes Plásticas MAM, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1985Tendências do Livro de Artista no Brasil CCSP, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
19852nd International Shoebox Sculpture ExhibitionUniversity of Hawaii Gallery, HIGroup
1985Rio: Vertente Construtiva Museu de Arte Contemporanea USP, Sao Paulo, Brazil; travelled to Belo HorizonteGroup
1984Lygia Clark Galeria Paulo Klabin, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilSolo
1984Grupo Frente 19541956,Galeria de Arte Banerj, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1984Tradiçao e Ruptura: síntese de arte e cultura brasileiras Fundacao Bienal, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1984Coleção Gilberto Chateaubriand: Retrato e AutoRetrato da Arte Brasileira MAM, SaoPaulo, BrazilGroup
1984Madeira; Matéria de Arte MAM, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1984Neo concretismo, 19591961Galeria de Arte Banerj, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1984Tradição e Ruptura: Síntese de Arte e Cultura Brasileiras Fundacao Bienal, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1984Projeto Releitura Pinacoteca do Estado de Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1983Imaginar o Presente, Gabinete de Arte Raquel Arnaud, Sao Paulo, BrazilSolo
1983Exposicion Internacional de Escultura En Cajas De ZapatosMuseu de Monterrey, MexicoGroup
1982Lygia Clark Gabinete de Arte Raquel Arnaud, Sao Paulo, BrazilSolo
19821st International Shoebox Sculpture ExhibitionUniversity of Hawaii Gallery, HI; travelled to Oklahoma Exposição Internacional de Art Door, Recife, BrazilGroup
1981Artistas Brasileiros dos Anos 60 e 70 na Coleçao Rubem Knijik Espaco Galeria Chaves, Porto Alegre, BrazilGroup
1981Do Moderno ao Contemporâneo: Coleção Gilberto Chateaubriand MAM, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1980Lygia Clark FUNARTE, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilSolo
1980Homenagem a Marío Pedrosa Galeria Jean Boghici, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1978As Bienais e Abstraçao: a decada de 50 Museu Lasar Segall, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1978Escultura Brasileira no Espaço Urbano 50 Anos, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1978O Objeto na Arte: Brasil Anos 60 MAB Faap, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1977Projeto Construtivo Brasileiro na Arte: 1950-1962 Pinacoteca do Estado de Sao Paulo,Brazil; travelled to MAM, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1977100 Anos de Pintura Feminina Castelo de Charlottenbourg, Berlin, GermanyGroup
1976Arte Brasileiro do Século XX: Caminhos e Tendências Galeria Arte Global, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1975Magma Castelo Oldofredi, Brescia, ItalyGroup
197312ª Bienal Internacional de São Paulo, Brazil Fundacao Bienal, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1973Vanguarda Internacional Galeria Ibeu Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1972Arte,Brasil,Hoje: 50 Anos Depois Galeria de Collectio, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1972The Non Objective World 1939-1955 Annely Juda Fine Art, London; travelled to Basel,Switzerland and Milan, ItalyGroup
1971Lygia Clark Galeria Ralph Camargo, Sao Paulo, BrazilSolo
1971A Grande Década: Abstracionismo Brasileiro: algumas obras dos anos 1955 1965 Galeria Barcinski, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
19702ª Bienal de Medellín Museo de Antioquia, Medellin, ColombiaGroup
1970Collective Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, UKGroup
1970UntitledKolner Kunster Markt, Cologne, GermanyGroup
1970Arte de Vanguarda do Brasil MAM, Buenos Aires, ArgentinaGroup
1970Salon Jeune Sculpture Paris, FranceGroup
1970Three Towards Infinite: New Multiple Art Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, UKGroup
1970Multiples by Unlimited Arnolfini Gallery, Bristol, UKGroup
1970UntltledArts Council of Great Britain, LondonGroup
196924th Salon des Realités Nouvelles ParisGroup
19697º Resumo de Arte JB MAM, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1969Kunst Als SpielSpiel Als Kunst, GermanyGroup
1969First International Tactile Sculpture Symposium California State College Gallery, CAGroup
1968A Casa É o Corpo, MAM, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilSolo
1968Lygia Clark Galerie M.E Thelen, Essen, GermanySolo
1968Bonalumi Clark Cruz Diez Galerie M.E. Thelen, Cologne, GermanyGroup
1968Retrospective Venice Biennale, Venice, ItalyGroup
1968UntitledAu Bon Marche, GermanyGroup
1968Contemporary Latin American ArtistsWilmington Society of the Fine Arts, Wilmington, DEGroup
1968Six Latin American Countries Nottingham Gallery, Nottingham, UKGroup
19679ª Bienal Internacional de São Paulo Brazil, Fundacao Bienal, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1967Nova Objetividade Brasileira MAM Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1967Ouverture Galerie Maywood, Paris, FranceGroup
19661ª Bienal Nacional de Artes Plásticas SalvadorGroup
1966Art of Latin America since Independence University of Texas Austin, TX; travelled to New Haven, CT, San Diego, CA, New Orleans, LA and San Francisco, CAGroup
1966Brazilian Contemporary Artists Museo de Arte Moderno, Buenos Aires; travelled to Montevideo, UruguayGroup
1966Nova Objetividade Brasileira, MAM Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1966Opinião 66 MAM Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1966Vanguarda Brasileira UFMG, Belo Horizonte, BrazilGroup
1966Art Council Exhibition of Kinetic Art Art Council Gallery, Cambridge; travelled to Oldham, Oxford, Leeds and Leicester, UKGroup
1965Lygia Clark Signals Gallery, London, UKSolo
1965Anthology of Mobile Sculpture Signals Gallery, London, UKGroup
19658ª Bienal Internacional de São Paulo, Brazil Fundacao Bienal, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1965Art and Movement Diploma Galleries of the Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh; travelled to Kelvingrove and Glasgow, ScotlandGroup
1965ArtsScience 1965 University of Liverpool Students Union, Liverpool, UKGroup
1965Objectifes 65 Galerie de la Librairie Anglaise, Paris, FranceGroup
1965Sono Montage Hampstead Arts Festival, London, UKGroup
1965Arte Moderna Brasileira ABECNI, Prague, Czech RepublicGroup
1965Salon Comparaisons Paris, FranceGroup
1965Pintura e Escultura Contemporâneas Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon, PortugalGroup
1964Lygia Clark Studium Generale Technische Hochschule, Stuttgart, GermanySolo
19641st Festival of Modern Art from Latin AmericaSignals Gallery, London, UKGroup
19642nd Pilot Exhibition of Kinetic Art Signals Gallery, London, UKGroup
1964Mouvement II Galerie Denise ReneÅL, Paris; travelled to Tel Aviv, IsraelGroup
1964O Hoje de Amanha MuseÅLe d'Arras, Arras, FranceGroup
1963Lygia Clark Louis Alexander Gallery, New YorkSolo
1963Lygia Clark, MAM, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilSolo
19637ª Bienal Internacional de São Paulo Brazil, Fundacao Bienal, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1963Mostra Arte Brasileira Casa do Brasil, Rome; travelled to Trieste, ItalyGroup
1963Brazil: New Images Art Gallery of Pepsi Co, New York, NYGroup
1963Pintura e Escultura Contemporâneas Museu Carlos Gomes, Campinas, BrazilGroup
1963Sculptures by Lygia Clark Mario Cravo, Aguinaldo dos Santos e Juliano Vangi, Pan American Union, Washington; travelled to Dupont Circle, WashingtonGroup
196231st Venice Biennale Venice, ItalyGroup
1962Collection of Works by Brazilian Artists The Pan American Union, Washington,DCGroup
1962Coletiva Premi Internacional de Escultura do Instituto Torquato di Tella, MuseoGroup
1962Nacional de Bella Artes Buenos Aires, ArgentinaGroup
19616ª Bienal Internacional de São Paulo MAM, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
19613ª Exposição de Arte NeoConcreta MAM, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
196029 Esculturas de Lygia Clark, Galeria Bonino, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilSolo
196030th Venice Biennale, VeniceGroup
1960CollectiveMoMA, New York, NY; travelled to Museo de Arte Moderna, La Paz, BoliviaGroup
1960Contribuiçao da Mulher ás Artes Plásticas no País MAM, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
19602ª Exposição Nacional de Arte NeoConcreta MEC, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1960Internationale Ausstellung Konkrete Kunst Zurich, SwitzerlandGroup
1960Exposição Inaugural Galeria Bonino, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
19591960: Experiência Neoconcreta MAM Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
19595ª Bienal Internacional de São Paulo MAM, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
19591ª Exposição Nacional de Arte NeoConcreta MAM Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; travelled to Salvador, BrazilGroup
1959Brazilianischer Kunstler Haus der Kunst Munchen, Munich; travelling exhibitionGroup
195947 ArtistasGaleria de Artes das Folhas, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1958Clark Weissmann e Charoux, Galeria de Arte da Folha, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
19574ª Bienal Internacional de São Paulo MAM, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1957Arte Moderno en Brasil Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires, ArgentinaGroup
1957Exposição Nacional de Arte Concreta MAM, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1956Salão Nacional de Arte ModernaGroup
19563º Grupo Frente Itatiaia Country Club, Resende, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
19561ª Exposição Nacional de Arte Concreta MAM, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
19564º Grupo Frente, CSN Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1956Pintura Brasileira Contemporánea Montevideo, UruguayGroup
19565th Salão Nacional de Arte Moderna MEC, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
19552º Grupo Frente MAM, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
19553ª Bienal Internacional de São Paolo MAM, Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1955Artistes Brésiliens Paris; travelled to Neuchatel, SwitzerlandGroup
19541º Grupo Frente Galeria Ibeu Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1954Salão Preto e Branco Palacio da Cultura, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
1954Untitled27th Venice Biennale, VeniceGroup
1954Conferência Interamericana Caracas, VenezuelaGroup
1954Salão Nacional de Arte Moderna MEC, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
19531ª Exposição Nacional de Arte AbstrataPetropolis, Hotel Quitandinha, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup
19532ª Bienal Internacional de São Paulo MAM Sao Paulo, BrazilGroup
1953Le Comptoir SuisseNational Fair, Lausanne, SwitzerlandGroup
1952Lygia Clark Galerie de L'Institute Endoplastique, Paris, FranceSolo
1952Lygia Clark Sala do Ministerio da Educacao, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilSolo
1952Salão da Natureza Morta Brazilian Society of Fine Arts, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGroup