Nancy Graves - Untitled (5-16-78), 1978 (detail)

Nancy Graves /   Nancy Stevenson Graves

United States 1939 - 1995

Sculpture, Conceptual Art, Abstract Art, Video Art, Painting

Nancy Graves
Nancy Stevenson Graves
United States
April 24, 2017

Nature lover, art-world sensation, and a creator who couldn’t be pigeonholed to only one medium – all this could be used to perfectly describe Nancy Graves, an American post-minimalist artist. Graves shifted her focus between painting and sculpture throughout her career, intertwining her vast fascination with nature and science in both large-scale paintings and a variety of sculptural pieces. Other ways of her artistic expression include print-making and films. Although she worked in a wide range of both common and unconventional media, Graves’ body of work is unified by her interest in data and ways to translate scientific information into the unique visual statement. Another trait of Nancy Graves is that she had a reactionary stance toward both Minimalism and Pop Art, popular at that time.

Nancy Graves - Bones and Their Containers, 1971, including exhibition view of 1980 work at the New York gallery
Nancy Graves – Bones and Their Containers, 1971 – Photo copyright of the artist

From a Curious Child to Yale Graduate

Born in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, Nancy Graves’ early childhood years were filled with visits to the local Berkshire Museum where her father worked. While in a museum, she was surrounded by all kinds of influences, since Berkshire Museum houses natural science adjacent to a fine art. Growing up in such an environment, Nancy developed interests in art, nature, and anthropology. Graves got her education from Vassar College, graduating in English Literature. Her education continued at the prestige Yale University, where she studied alongside future painters, photographers, and sculptors – Janet Fish, Brice Marden, Chuck Close and Robert Mangold, just to name a few. While she was at Yale’s MFA program, Nancy met and fell in love with minimalist sculptor Richard Serra. The couple graduated in 1964 and married in Paris the following year, while Graves was on her Fulbright Scholarship.

Graves got her education from Vassar College, graduating in English Literature

Nancy Graves - Variability of Similar Forms in New York gallery contact and view privacy terms
Nancy Graves – Variability of Similar Forms, 1970 – Photo via flickr

Art-scene Breakthrough: Camels

Camels, Graves’ best-known pieces, caused a stir in the art world when they were first exhibited at the Graham Gallery in New York in 1968. These realistic life-size sculptures made to look like taxidermy defined her personal aesthetic and became a sort of a trademark at the beginning of her career. Seen as realistic illusions of nature, this project was so unusual at the time, so untypical and different from the clean cool Minimalist art of the 1960s. Critics and viewers were confused by the use of non-traditional materials and techniques. And more importantly, they stood out from the pile of minimalist and pop art as a stark contrast. The idea behind these sculptural works came from Nancy Graves’ childhood memories of the animals preserved by taxidermists in the Berkshire Museum. She managed to produce hyperrealistic sculptural effects by using different materials, among then burlap, wax, fiberglass, animal skin, wood, metal, and polyurethane. In order to appear even more realistic, each camel is painted with acrylics and oil colors. During the period of five years, Nancy produced 25 camels, no more than five of which are extant. And with each new sculpture, her replication skills became increasingly better. In 1969, Camel VI, Camel VII and Camel VIII were a part of Graves’ noted solo exhibition. She was the youngest person, and only the fifth woman, to be given the honor to have a solo show at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York. These works were also important because they indicated Graves’ approach to art in years that followed – the interplay between the replication of nature and the formal values of abstract art.

During the period of five years, Nancy produced 25 camels, no more than five of which are extant

Nancy Graves - Camel VI, VII, VIII, work exhibited at New York privacy gallery
Nancy Graves – Camel VI, VII, VIII, 1968-1969 – Photo copyright of the artist

Variability of Similar Forms And a Shift to Abstraction

Graves’ long-standing fascination with camels has been exemplified in yet another work of art. Created in 1970, Variability of Similar Forms consists of thirty-six replicas of camel leg bones which she produced using several unconventional materials, such as Fiberglas, latex and marble dust. By placing all of the leg bones in various upright positions and arranging them in an irregular pattern, Graves created an illusion of an archaeological site yet to be discovered. As the title suggests, Nancy plays with the variability of forms, creating new connections between art and nature. Living in an era marked by early space exploration and scientific advances, Nancy was exposed to some images that could be seen for the first time in human history. Already a science-lover, the author was impressed and captivated by the satellite images of the moon, earth, and ocean floor. These new scientific discoveries became an integral part of Graves’ artistic practice. Her admiration of the natural world resulted in large-scale expressive compositions, ranging from pointillist-like Camouflage Series to map-like canvases based on satellite images of the ocean floor and surface of the moon. Brilliantly layered and painted in luminous colors, her aerial landscapes possess great abstract quality.

Her admiration of the natural world resulted in large-scale expressive compositions

Nancy Graves - Camouflage Series #1 works including 1980 terms in gallery, 1971
Nancy Graves – Camouflage Series #1, 1971 – Photo copyright of the artist

The 80s: Graves’ Bronze Cast Sculptures

Throughout the 1980s, Graves dedicated herself to yet another medium – bronze casting. She used a variety of found objects, both organic and man-made, which she assembled and welded together. If you look closely, you can discover objects like leaves, spirals, architectural elements and all sorts of mechanical parts welded onto supporting scrap metal. Poetic, whimsical and personal, Graves’ bronze cast sculptures come in all sorts of shapes and colors. She used patination – a chemical process that fuses pigments of bronze – to color her sculptures. The color palette used in these artworks is intense and vivid, ranging from hot orange to sea green, resembling a fauna of a tropical reef. With its unusual shapes and hues, it almost looks like her pieces could belong to a coral reef.

The color palette used in these artworks is intense and vivid

Left Nancy Graves - Walk (Spill Series), 1983, Right Nancy Graves - Apropos Anthropos, 1986, wax works at the New York gallery
Left: Nancy Graves – Walk (Spill Series), 1983 / Right: Nancy Graves – Apropos Anthropos, 1986 – Photo copyright of the artist

Graves’ Moving Pictures

When it comes to films, Nancy Graves stays true to her conceptual principles of naturalism. She produced five films in total – 200 Stills at 60 Frames, Goulimine, Izy Boukir, Aves: Magnificent Frigate Bird, Great Flamingo, and Reflections on the Moon – all shot during the early 1970s. Two of the films share a similar theme. Filmed in Morocco, Goulimine and Izy Boukir both capture the movement of animals through the magnificent Saharan landscape, whether as a flock or an individual camel separated from the group. Similar to Eadweard Muybridge’s motion study photography, Graves skillfully captures the subtle formations in close-framed sequences. She allows her subjects – in this case, camels – to determine the structure of a particular frame by their natural motions, shifting of their legs, or the curves of their extended necks.

Graves skilfully captures the subtle formations in close-framed sequences

Nancy Graves - Shamna, 1970, view in documenta 5 use
Nancy Graves – Shamna, 1970, in documenta 5 – Photo via


Nancy was diagnosed with cancer in May 1995, and she lost her battle for life just a few months later. She died on October 21st, aged 55. Since her initial burst onto the international scene in 1969 with a solo exhibition at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, Nancy Graves was featured in numerous prominent solo and collective exhibitions around the world. During the 1970s, she was a part of renowned Documenta 5 and Documenta 6. Inclusion in these exhibitions serves as an example of her great importance. Although she never quite became an author whose name is often mentioned when speaking about the art of the 70s and 80s (decades marked mostly by Pop Art), Nancy Graves’ avant-garde approach is worshiped by the ones who were curious enough to discover her work.

She is represented by Puccio Fine Art, located in New York.

Featured image: Nancy Graves – Untitled (5-16-78), 1978 (detail). Watercolor on paper. 25 1/8 x 39 3/4 in. 63.8 x 101 cm. This is a unique work. Photo courtesy Berry Campbell Gallery
All images used for illustrative purposes only

YearExhibition TitleGallery/MuseumSolo/Group
2013Nancy Graves: SynecdocheLocks Gallery, Philadelphia, USASolo
2012Spring GardenNew Gallery on Old Bailey, Hong Kong, SARGroup
2011Nancy GravesThe Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center, Poughkeepsie, USASolo
2009Nancy Graves: Permanent TensionLocks Gallery, Philadelphia, USASolo
2008Tango: Installation & PerformanceThe Point of Contact Gallery, Syracuse, USAGroup
2008Nancy Graves: Bronze Sculpture of the 1980sAmeringer & Yohe Fine Art, New York, USASolo
2007Nancy Graves - The Pilchuck Series: Selected MonotypesLeslie Sacks Fine Art, Los Angeles, USASolo
2006Nancy Graves 1970-1980Ameringer & Yohe Fine Art, New York, USASolo
2005Nancy Graves: The ShiningElusive Element, Locks Gallery, Philadelphia, USASolo
1999The Virginia and Bagley Wright Collection of Modern ArtSeattle Art Museum, Seattle, USAGroup
1996More than Minimal: Feminism and Abstraction in the SeventiesRose Art Museum, Brandeis University, Waltham, USAGroup
1995Nancy Graves: In MemoriamLocks Gallery, Philadelphia, USASolo
1995Nancy Graves: Contemporary Galleries ExhibitionNational Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, CanadaSolo
1994MappingThe Museum of Modern Art, New York, USAGroup
1993Lithographs Based on Geologic Maps of Lunar Orbiter and Apollo Landing Sites by Nancy GravesCincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati, USASolo
1993Grounds for SculptureJohnson Atelier, Hamilton, USAGroup
1991Nancy Graves: Paradigm and ParadoxLocks Gallery, Philadelphia, USASolo
1991El Sueño de Egipto: La Influencia del Arte Egipcio en el Arte ContemporáneoCentro Cultural - Arte Contemporáneo, MexicoGroup
1987Nancy Graves: A Sculpture RetrospectiveHirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C.Solo
1986Nancy GravesVassar College Art Gallery, Poughkeepsie, USASolo
1984Primitivism in Twentieth Century Art: Affinity of the Tribal and the ModernThe Museum of Modern Art, New York, USAGroup
1984Prints from Tyler GraphicsWalker Art Center, Minneapolis, USAGroup
1980Nancy Graves: A Survey, 1969-1980Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, USASolo
1979The Seventies: New American PaintingThe New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York, USAGroup
1979Recent AcquisitionsThe Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USAGroup
1979Recent AcquisitionsYale University Art Gallery, New Haven, USAGroup
1977Contemporary Issues: Works on Paper by WomenThe Woman’s Building, Los Angeles, USAGroup
1977Documenta 6Kassel, GermanyGroup
1973New American Graphic ArtFogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, USAGroup
1973Nancy GravesLa Jolla Museum of Contemporary Art, La Jolla, USASolo
1973Nancy GravesThe National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, CanadaSolo
1972Nancy GravesInstitute of Contemporary Art of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USASolo
1972The New American Filmmakers Series, Part III: Films by ArtistsWhitney Museum of American Art, New York, USAGroup
1972Documenta VNeue Galerie, Kassel, GermanyGroup
1971Nancy GravesThe National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, CanadaSolo
1971Nancy GravesNeue Galerie der Stadt AachenSolo
1971Nancy GravesMuseum of Modern Art, New York, USASolo
1969Nancy Graves: CamelsWhitney Museum of American Art, New York, USASolo